Process pdf hard gelatin manufacturing capsule

Coni-Snap Hard Gelatin Capsules Amazon S3

Key Considerations in Capsule Filling Pharmaceutical

hard gelatin capsule manufacturing process pdf

US4816259A Process for coating gelatin capsules - Google. A hard gelatin capsule is provided which comprises gelatin and titanium oxide having a secondary particle size of less than 10 μm and a median diameter of 0.5 μm or less being dispersed in the gelatin. A process for producing a hard gelatin capsule includes the steps of preparing a gelatin solution, dispersing titanium oxide in the gelatin solution so that a secondary particle size of the, the process capability for a specific formulation being encapsulated on a designated filling PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com. Most statistical textbook and publications on ‘lean sigma’ provide the procedures and of this section, any two-piece, hard gelatin capsule covered by this section must be.

(PDF) Industrial Gelatin Manufacture-Theory and Practice

US4816259A Process for coating gelatin capsules - Google. A hard gelatin capsule is provided which comprises gelatin and titanium oxide having a secondary particle size of less than 10 μm and a median diameter of 0.5 μm or less being dispersed in the gelatin. A process for producing a hard gelatin capsule includes the steps of preparing a gelatin solution, dispersing titanium oxide in the gelatin solution so that a secondary particle size of the, simplicity of hard gelatin capsule formulation and manufacturing as well as the versatility of this dosage form substantially supports these requirements. Pharmacopoeial monographs When talking about hard gelatin capsules, powder and granular fillings are what spring to mind. These prod-ucts still account for most hard gelatin capsules on the.

Natural Capsules is listed as one of the best Hard Gelatin Capsules manufacturers in India and these capsules are typically made using Gelatin. Hard Gelatin Capsule Shells. the best Pharmaceutical Grade Gelatin and edible food grade colors from the Best Manufacturers of Raw Material for manufacturing of its products. These capsules are PDF A softgel or soft gelatin capsule is a solid capsule (outer shell) surrounding a liquid or semi-solid center (inner fill). Simplifies the manufacturing process, can lead to

7/18/2013 · Hard Gelatin Capsule Shells 1. Shell composition: Gelatin : Prepared by the hydrolysis of collagen. There are two basic types of gelatin: Type – A and Type – B. The two types can be differentiated by their isoelectric points (7.0 – 9.0 for type A and 4.8 – 5.0 for type B) and by their viscosity and film forming characteristics. advantages over hard gelatin capsules is to make a SOFT GELATIN CAPSULE 12. CHARACTERISTICS OF GELATIN & CAPSULES 12.1. GELATIN CHARACTERISTICS 14.1. TYPICAL FORMULA 15. PROCESS OF PREPARING GELATIN SOLUTION 16. MANUFACTURING PROCESS 17. PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM 18. PACKAGING & TRANSPORTATION OF EMPTY GELATIN CAPSULES. www.entrepreneurindia

PDF The gelatin cap-sule shell may be soft or hard depending on their formulation. Capsules are intended to be swallowed whole by the patient. Capsules and It’s Technology: An Overview 2/14/2014 · Hard gelatin capsule are a traditional pharmaceutical dosage form whereby the empty capsules are provided as an excipient for development and manufacturing. As a major excipient of the pharmaceutical product, the quality attributes of empty hard capsule is expected to play an important role in the final product quality and performance.

Advantages of hard gelatin capsule are rapid drug release possible, flexibility of formulation and sealed hard gelatin capsules are good barriers to atmospheric oxygen. The basic aim of this work is to produce immediate release action of drug from the hard gelatin capsule … A schematic presentation of the gelatin manufacturing process appears in the figure. 4. 1. Hard gelatin capsule: The majority of capsule products is made of hard gelatin capsules. Hard gelatin capsules are made of two shells: the capsule body and a shorter cap. The cap fits tightly over the open end of the capsule body. The basic

advantages over hard gelatin capsules is to make a SOFT GELATIN CAPSULE 12. CHARACTERISTICS OF GELATIN & CAPSULES 12.1. GELATIN CHARACTERISTICS 14.1. TYPICAL FORMULA 15. PROCESS OF PREPARING GELATIN SOLUTION 16. MANUFACTURING PROCESS 17. PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM 18. PACKAGING & TRANSPORTATION OF EMPTY GELATIN CAPSULES. www.entrepreneurindia companies, other capsule manufacturers, gelatin manufacturers Application In pharmaceutical processes, gelatin use is widespread and covers a large variety of processes. From production to filling and sealing (encapsulation), gelatin is the key ingredient throughout capsule manufacturing.

throughout the manufacturing process to ensure good filling machine performance. PEG/Gelatin Capsule:This is a Two-piece Gelatin Capsule with Polyethylene Glycol that was specially developed to reduce the brittleness of the gelatin capsule film when exposed to hygroscopic formulations. customers, Coni-Snap® Hard Gelatin Capsules offer a wide range of advantages. The hard gelatin capsules can be produced using a simpler manufacturing process with fewer production steps while maintaining high quality standards. On the formulation side, hard gelatin capsules are a versatile container, offering numerous

when the manufacturing process is completed in Hard capsules are made in a range of sizes, the standard industrial ones in use today for human medicines range from size from 000 (the largest, 1.40 ml) to 5 (the smallest, 0.13 ml) are In a capsule an active ingredient is present which is called API. So to prepare the capsule assay 12/29/2015 · 4 Hard Gelatin Capsule:Hard Gelatin Capsule: The hard gelatin capsule consists of two pieces in the form of cylinders closed at one end. The shorter piece is called the cap. This cap fits over the open end of longer piece called body. Hard gelatin capsules are also known as dry-filled capsules or two piece capsules.

10/25/2015 · Hard Capsule shell manufacturing Fascinating Manufacturing Process You Never Semi-automatic capsule fillers,capsule machines,encapsulation machine for empty gelatin capsules process. However, sealing of two-piece hard gelatin capsules can be accomplished, thus allowing the incorporation of liquid or semi-solid formulation. The use of two-piece hard capsules for the purpose of carrying liquid or semi-solid formulations appears to be an attractive strategy, but its potential

Empty Hard Gelatin Capsules Manufacturing Industry: Empty Hard Gelatin Capsules Manufacturing Industry. Production of Empty Gel Capsules. Pharmaceutical Capsule Manufacture Gelatin is considered to be animal proteins that are utilized to prepare capsules, which gives calculated quantities of products. 3/2/2017 · Capsule filling is a complex process, and the product to be encapsulated must be well developed to ensure mass uniformity. formulation and manufacturing manager at Idifarma, and Rob Harris, Finally, hard gelatin capsules eventually undergo a cross-linking reaction that renders the gelatin less soluble and may affect the release of the

simplicity of hard gelatin capsule formulation and manufacturing as well as the versatility of this dosage form substantially supports these requirements. Pharmacopoeial monographs When talking about hard gelatin capsules, powder and granular fillings are what spring to mind. These prod-ucts still account for most hard gelatin capsules on the 2/4/2014 · Liquid Filled and Sealed Hard Gelatin Capsules Poorly water soluable NCEs are an industry-wide drug formulation issue which is addressed by E.T. Cole here. This paper covers the gamut of lipid-based processes and technologies including Capsugel's LEMS system.

process. However, sealing of two-piece hard gelatin capsules can be accomplished, thus allowing the incorporation of liquid or semi-solid formulation. The use of two-piece hard capsules for the purpose of carrying liquid or semi-solid formulations appears to be an attractive strategy, but its potential Advantages of hard gelatin capsule are rapid drug release possible, flexibility of formulation and sealed hard gelatin capsules are good barriers to atmospheric oxygen. The basic aim of this work is to produce immediate release action of drug from the hard gelatin capsule …

final ANSWERS TO 10 COMMON QUESTIONS ABOUT CAPSULE

hard gelatin capsule manufacturing process pdf

TP G ELATI N H ANDBOO K - falcaoteles.pt. 3/13/2012 · Empty capsules,gelatin capsule manufacturer CapsulCN Inc. Hard Capsule shell manufacturing Artificial marble manufacturing/ process artificial quartz stone producing machine/cuarzo, of a facility for filling hard shell gelatin capsules in the design and operation of the manufacturing operation. Current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) Validation of hard gelatin capsule filling equipment and ancillary services 3.1. Scope of documentation 3.2. Validation protocol for a MG2 G37 N.

Process of Manufacturing Oral Drugs (Capsule) Open

hard gelatin capsule manufacturing process pdf

50 STEPS FOR SUCCESS IN MANUFACTURING EMPTY HARD. MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF SOFT GELATIN CAPSULE (Part I) Encapsulation is the manufacturing process that brings the gelatin shell and the fill material together to form Softgel capsules. It takes place in a closed environment called clean room where the relative humidity is around 20%. The gelatin shell and fill material are brought together Pharmaceutical Technology Capsules Dr. Bhawna Bhatt Blends of bone and pork skin gelatins of relatively high strength are normally used for hard capsule production. The bone gelatin produces a tough, firm film, but tends to be hazy and Flow chart for gelatin production process . 5 3..

hard gelatin capsule manufacturing process pdf


PDF A softgel or soft gelatin capsule is a solid capsule (outer shell) surrounding a liquid or semi-solid center (inner fill). Simplifies the manufacturing process, can lead to when the manufacturing process is completed in Hard capsules are made in a range of sizes, the standard industrial ones in use today for human medicines range from size from 000 (the largest, 1.40 ml) to 5 (the smallest, 0.13 ml) are In a capsule an active ingredient is present which is called API. So to prepare the capsule assay

the process capability for a specific formulation being encapsulated on a designated filling PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com. Most statistical textbook and publications on ‘lean sigma’ provide the procedures and of this section, any two-piece, hard gelatin capsule covered by this section must be The gelatin used in capsules is made from the bones and hide of cattle and pigs. In fact, the gelatin capsule industry consumes roughly 90 to 95 percent of all bovine-bone gelatin production and, in 2015, about 628 billion gelatin capsules—both soft and hard—were made. Within the gelatin capsule market segment, demand for

Capsule Manufacturing Process. In the capsule manufacturing process first gelatin and hot demineralized water are mixed under vacuum in Gelatin Melting System. After aging in stainless steel receiving tanks, the gelatin solution is transferred to stainless steel feed tanks. Capsule fillers are used to fill hard gelatin and non gelatin The study aim of my project is to study the process of manufacturing of oral drugs. The study deals with the processes of how the oral drugs that we consume in our daily life are manufactured. The result was concluded that the manufacturing process of capsules and syrups were easy as compared to tablets.

Some have considered that gelatin good for hair and nail growth, but this claim is not supported by sufficient scientific data. Hard Gelatin Capsule Manufacturing steps : 1. Before capsule manufacturing start, first all raw materials should be released by Quality Control and all equipment should be validated. 3/2/2017 · Capsule filling is a complex process, and the product to be encapsulated must be well developed to ensure mass uniformity. formulation and manufacturing manager at Idifarma, and Rob Harris, Finally, hard gelatin capsules eventually undergo a cross-linking reaction that renders the gelatin less soluble and may affect the release of the

Tablets and Capsules Aulton 16, 27-30 Tablets Gelatin • Hard and soft New capsule materials process •A heated fluid of gelatin mixed with excipients is … The study aim of my project is to study the process of manufacturing of oral drugs. The study deals with the processes of how the oral drugs that we consume in our daily life are manufactured. The result was concluded that the manufacturing process of capsules and syrups were easy as compared to tablets.

PDF A softgel or soft gelatin capsule is a solid capsule (outer shell) surrounding a liquid or semi-solid center (inner fill). Simplifies the manufacturing process, can lead to A Prototype Intelligent Hybrid System for Hard Gelatin Capsule incompatible substances within the same capsule. Even though hard gelatin capsules are perceived to be a simple dosage form, the design of formulations for the capsules can to be used only to provide support for the formulation process.

Manufacturing equipment. The process of encapsulation of hard gelatin capsules can be done on manual, semi-automatic and automatic capsule filling machines. Softgels are filled at the same time as they are produced and sealed on the rotary die of a fully automatic machine. Summary: Manufacturing empty hard gelatin capsules is not easy. The capsules are very delicate products. Both science and art is involved in capsule manufacturing. It is advised the product shall be sourced from cGMP Compliant and well managed manufacturers. References: 1. Latest Editions of various Pharmacopoeias such as USP, B.P, EP and I.P 2.

12/29/2015 · 4 Hard Gelatin Capsule:Hard Gelatin Capsule: The hard gelatin capsule consists of two pieces in the form of cylinders closed at one end. The shorter piece is called the cap. This cap fits over the open end of longer piece called body. Hard gelatin capsules are also known as dry-filled capsules or two piece capsules. A Prototype Intelligent Hybrid System for Hard Gelatin Capsule incompatible substances within the same capsule. Even though hard gelatin capsules are perceived to be a simple dosage form, the design of formulations for the capsules can to be used only to provide support for the formulation process.

The study aim of my project is to study the process of manufacturing of oral drugs. The study deals with the processes of how the oral drugs that we consume in our daily life are manufactured. The result was concluded that the manufacturing process of capsules and syrups were easy as compared to tablets. The Five Steps of Softgel Manufacturing . Gelatin Preparation - the process of blending and heating granulated gelatin and other ingredients in warm water in a gelatin melting tank. With appropriate heat, mixing and vacuum, the ingredients form a thick syrup called a "gel mass" for use in encapsulation.

hard gelatin capsule manufacturing process pdf

when the manufacturing process is completed in Hard capsules are made in a range of sizes, the standard industrial ones in use today for human medicines range from size from 000 (the largest, 1.40 ml) to 5 (the smallest, 0.13 ml) are In a capsule an active ingredient is present which is called API. So to prepare the capsule assay 3/2/2017 · Capsule filling is a complex process, and the product to be encapsulated must be well developed to ensure mass uniformity. formulation and manufacturing manager at Idifarma, and Rob Harris, Finally, hard gelatin capsules eventually undergo a cross-linking reaction that renders the gelatin less soluble and may affect the release of the

TP G ELATI N H ANDBOO K - falcaoteles.pt. 7/5/2017 · soft-gelatin technology. capsugel uses soft-gelatin capsule technology, as well as liquid-filled hard capsules, to bring a number of formulation and commercial benefits to biopharmaceutical and health & nutrition customers. softgel capsule technology is a key offering within our suite of technologies for bioavailability enhancement, as well as, some have considered that gelatin good for hair and nail growth, but this claim is not supported by sufficient scientific data. hard gelatin capsule manufacturing steps : 1. before capsule manufacturing start, first all raw materials should be released by quality control and all equipment should be validated.).

7/5/2017 · Soft-Gelatin Technology. Capsugel uses soft-gelatin capsule technology, as well as liquid-filled hard capsules, to bring a number of formulation and commercial benefits to biopharmaceutical and health & nutrition customers. Softgel capsule technology is a key offering within our suite of technologies for bioavailability enhancement, as well as process. However, sealing of two-piece hard gelatin capsules can be accomplished, thus allowing the incorporation of liquid or semi-solid formulation. The use of two-piece hard capsules for the purpose of carrying liquid or semi-solid formulations appears to be an attractive strategy, but its potential

companies, other capsule manufacturers, gelatin manufacturers Application In pharmaceutical processes, gelatin use is widespread and covers a large variety of processes. From production to filling and sealing (encapsulation), gelatin is the key ingredient throughout capsule manufacturing. customers, Coni-Snap® Hard Gelatin Capsules offer a wide range of advantages. The hard gelatin capsules can be produced using a simpler manufacturing process with fewer production steps while maintaining high quality standards. On the formulation side, hard gelatin capsules are a versatile container, offering numerous

A Prototype Intelligent Hybrid System for Hard Gelatin Capsule incompatible substances within the same capsule. Even though hard gelatin capsules are perceived to be a simple dosage form, the design of formulations for the capsules can to be used only to provide support for the formulation process. Manufacturing equipment. The process of encapsulation of hard gelatin capsules can be done on manual, semi-automatic and automatic capsule filling machines. Softgels are filled at the same time as they are produced and sealed on the rotary die of a fully automatic machine.

7/5/2017 · Soft-Gelatin Technology. Capsugel uses soft-gelatin capsule technology, as well as liquid-filled hard capsules, to bring a number of formulation and commercial benefits to biopharmaceutical and health & nutrition customers. Softgel capsule technology is a key offering within our suite of technologies for bioavailability enhancement, as well as simplicity of hard gelatin capsule formulation and manufacturing as well as the versatility of this dosage form substantially supports these requirements. Pharmacopoeial monographs When talking about hard gelatin capsules, powder and granular fillings are what spring to mind. These prod-ucts still account for most hard gelatin capsules on the

7/18/2013 · Hard Gelatin Capsule Shells 1. Shell composition: Gelatin : Prepared by the hydrolysis of collagen. There are two basic types of gelatin: Type – A and Type – B. The two types can be differentiated by their isoelectric points (7.0 – 9.0 for type A and 4.8 – 5.0 for type B) and by their viscosity and film forming characteristics. Capsule Manufacturing Process 1. Once raw materials have been received and released by Quality Control, the gelatin and hot demineralized water are mixed under vacuum in R&J Engineering's Stainless Steel Gelatin Melting System.

3/2/2017 · Capsule filling is a complex process, and the product to be encapsulated must be well developed to ensure mass uniformity. formulation and manufacturing manager at Idifarma, and Rob Harris, Finally, hard gelatin capsules eventually undergo a cross-linking reaction that renders the gelatin less soluble and may affect the release of the POLICY OFFICE OF PHARMACEUTICAL QUALITY . Change in Hard Gelatin Capsule Shell Supplier . Manufacturing, and Controls, In Vitro Dissolution Testing, and In Vivo Bioequivalence Documentation)

US4816259A US07/013,600 US1360087A US4816259A US 4816259 A US4816259 A US 4816259A US 1360087 A US1360087 A US 1360087A US 4816259 A US4816259 A US 4816259A Authority US United States Prior art keywords process capsules coating capsule subcoating Prior art date 1987-02-12 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. throughout the manufacturing process to ensure good filling machine performance. PEG/Gelatin Capsule:This is a Two-piece Gelatin Capsule with Polyethylene Glycol that was specially developed to reduce the brittleness of the gelatin capsule film when exposed to hygroscopic formulations.

hard gelatin capsule manufacturing process pdf

techceuticals.com

US4816259A Process for coating gelatin capsules - Google. of a facility for filling hard shell gelatin capsules in the design and operation of the manufacturing operation. current good manufacturing practice (cgmp) validation of hard gelatin capsule filling equipment and ancillary services 3.1. scope of documentation 3.2. validation protocol for a mg2 g37 n, today there are two main types of capsules: the hard gelatin capsule and the soft gelatin capsule, often called softshells. this chapter will focus on hard gelatin capsules. the hard gelatin capsule can be used for dry fills such as powder, liquids, and semisolids, while the softshell is …).

hard gelatin capsule manufacturing process pdf

Soft Gelatin Capsule Manufacturing Bry Air

US4816259A Process for coating gelatin capsules - Google. the process capability for a specific formulation being encapsulated on a designated filling pdf created with pdffactory pro trial version www.pdffactory.com. most statistical textbook and publications on ‘lean sigma’ provide the procedures and of this section, any two-piece, hard gelatin capsule covered by this section must be, capsule suppliers and gelatin manufacturers. in addition, rapid what is empty hard gelatin capsules manufacturing industry ? 2. how has the empty hard gelatin capsules 12. what is the manufacturing process of empty hard gelatin capsules? www.entrepreneurindia.co. www.entepreneurindia.co 13. what is the total size of land required for).

hard gelatin capsule manufacturing process pdf

Hard Gelatin Capsules Gelatin Capsule Manufacturers

TP G ELATI N H ANDBOO K - falcaoteles.pt. the five steps of softgel manufacturing . gelatin preparation - the process of blending and heating granulated gelatin and other ingredients in warm water in a gelatin melting tank. with appropriate heat, mixing and vacuum, the ingredients form a thick syrup called a "gel mass" for use in encapsulation., some have considered that gelatin good for hair and nail growth, but this claim is not supported by sufficient scientific data. hard gelatin capsule manufacturing steps : 1. before capsule manufacturing start, first all raw materials should be released by quality control and all equipment should be validated.).

hard gelatin capsule manufacturing process pdf

Application of QbD Principles for the Evaluation of Empty

POLICY OFFICE OF PHARMACEUTICAL QUALITY BACKGROUND 1. a schematic presentation of the gelatin manufacturing process appears in the figure. 4. 1. hard gelatin capsule: the majority of capsule products is made of hard gelatin capsules. hard gelatin capsules are made of two shells: the capsule body and a shorter cap. the cap fits tightly over the open end of the capsule body. the basic, policy office of pharmaceutical quality . change in hard gelatin capsule shell supplier . manufacturing, and controls, in vitro dissolution testing, and in vivo bioequivalence documentation)).

hard gelatin capsule manufacturing process pdf

Hard Capsule shell manufacturing YouTube

(PDF) Industrial Gelatin Manufacture-Theory and Practice. pdf a softgel or soft gelatin capsule is a solid capsule (outer shell) surrounding a liquid or semi-solid center (inner fill). simplifies the manufacturing process, can lead to, pharmaceutical technology capsules dr. bhawna bhatt blends of bone and pork skin gelatins of relatively high strength are normally used for hard capsule production. the bone gelatin produces a tough, firm film, but tends to be hazy and flow chart for gelatin production process . 5 3.).

2/4/2014 · Liquid Filled and Sealed Hard Gelatin Capsules Poorly water soluable NCEs are an industry-wide drug formulation issue which is addressed by E.T. Cole here. This paper covers the gamut of lipid-based processes and technologies including Capsugel's LEMS system. customers, Coni-Snap® Hard Gelatin Capsules offer a wide range of advantages. The hard gelatin capsules can be produced using a simpler manufacturing process with fewer production steps while maintaining high quality standards. On the formulation side, hard gelatin capsules are a versatile container, offering numerous

Today there are two main types of capsules: the hard gelatin capsule and the soft gelatin capsule, often called softshells. This chapter will focus on hard gelatin capsules. The hard gelatin capsule can be used for dry fills such as powder, liquids, and semisolids, while the softshell is … Advantages of hard gelatin capsule are rapid drug release possible, flexibility of formulation and sealed hard gelatin capsules are good barriers to atmospheric oxygen. The basic aim of this work is to produce immediate release action of drug from the hard gelatin capsule …

Capsule Manufacturing Process. In the capsule manufacturing process first gelatin and hot demineralized water are mixed under vacuum in Gelatin Melting System. After aging in stainless steel receiving tanks, the gelatin solution is transferred to stainless steel feed tanks. Capsule fillers are used to fill hard gelatin and non gelatin PDF A softgel or soft gelatin capsule is a solid capsule (outer shell) surrounding a liquid or semi-solid center (inner fill). Simplifies the manufacturing process, can lead to

the process capability for a specific formulation being encapsulated on a designated filling PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com. Most statistical textbook and publications on ‘lean sigma’ provide the procedures and of this section, any two-piece, hard gelatin capsule covered by this section must be the process capability for a specific formulation being encapsulated on a designated filling PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com. Most statistical textbook and publications on ‘lean sigma’ provide the procedures and of this section, any two-piece, hard gelatin capsule covered by this section must be

advantages over hard gelatin capsules is to make a SOFT GELATIN CAPSULE 12. CHARACTERISTICS OF GELATIN & CAPSULES 12.1. GELATIN CHARACTERISTICS 14.1. TYPICAL FORMULA 15. PROCESS OF PREPARING GELATIN SOLUTION 16. MANUFACTURING PROCESS 17. PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM 18. PACKAGING & TRANSPORTATION OF EMPTY GELATIN CAPSULES. www.entrepreneurindia The gelatin used in capsules is made from the bones and hide of cattle and pigs. In fact, the gelatin capsule industry consumes roughly 90 to 95 percent of all bovine-bone gelatin production and, in 2015, about 628 billion gelatin capsules—both soft and hard—were made. Within the gelatin capsule market segment, demand for

throughout the manufacturing process to ensure good filling machine performance. PEG/Gelatin Capsule:This is a Two-piece Gelatin Capsule with Polyethylene Glycol that was specially developed to reduce the brittleness of the gelatin capsule film when exposed to hygroscopic formulations. PDF A softgel or soft gelatin capsule is a solid capsule (outer shell) surrounding a liquid or semi-solid center (inner fill). Simplifies the manufacturing process, can lead to

hard gelatin capsule manufacturing process pdf

ALTERNATIVES FOR GELATIN IN THE PREPARATION OF CAPSULES